There will always be people who have such a low self-esteem that they believe they can only control others (both humans and animals) through fear. Undoing the damage can take much longer than one expects, especially with Arabians, who, probably because the ability to bond with humans has been bred into them, have a harder time learning to trust. The bonding ability can be a 2 edged sword – – once trust is abused or broken, the human has to prove himself/herself over and over before the horse will even begin to have any trust in any human. It will happen, but on the horse’s schedule, not the human’s. Reward baby steps, ignore back sliding. The ability to bond is still there, just buried under layers of anger and hurt, both physical and mental.